segunda-feira, 18 de março de 2013
segunda-feira, março 18, 2013 Daniel Deusdete
Outro dos salmos de Davi feito, conforme título do salmo, para o músico-chefe de Susã-eduth, Michtam de Davi, para ensinar, quando ele lutou com os sírios da Mesopotâmia, e com os sírios de Zobá, e quando Joabe voltou, e feriu 12000 edomitas no vale do Sal.
Davi entende que tudo vem de Deus e é por ele controlado. Davi crê na soberania de Deus e na sua providência. Por isso que começa seu salmo com um lamento por algum tipo de perda. Ele não somente atribui a vitória a Deus, como atribui a Deus também a derrota.
É preciso cuidado para não confundirmos as coisas, principalmente quando digo que tanto a vitória quanto a derrota vieram de Deus como se nada pudessem fazer ou tivesse significado sendo os homens marionetes nas mãos de um Deus estranho. Eu não disse isso.
Eu disse que tudo vem de Deus, inclusive as nossas derrotas. Quando ele não sai com nossos exércitos, a derrota é certa. No entanto, ele está nos controlando? Não, não está! Somos os únicos responsáveis e seremos punidos por isso. Por todos os nossos atos haveremos de dar contas a Deus.
Como então iremos convencer Deus a sair com nossos exércitos sempre? Ora é somente SEMPRE estarmos em completa obediência a ele.
No comentário de Calvino, apenas na sua introdução, há um aprofundamento da contextualização deste salmo e a boa explicação de suas razões.
David, who was now settled upon the throne, and had gained several signal victories, tending to confirm him in the kingdom, in this Psalm exalts the goodness of God, that he might at once express his gratitude, and by conciliating the favor of such as still stood out against his interests, unite the community, which had been rent into factions. Having first adverted to the clear indications of the Divine favor, which proved that God had chosen him to be king, he more particularly calls the attention of the faithful to the oracle itself, in order to convince them that they could only comply with the mind of God, by yielding their consent and approbation to the anointing which he had received from Samuel. Prayers also are offered up throughout the psalm, urging God to perfect what he had begun.
To the chief musician upon Shushan-eduth, Michtam  of David, to teach; when he strove with the Syrians of Mesopotamia, and with the Syrians of Zoba, and when Joab returned, and smote of the Edomites in the valley of Salt twelve thousand.
Of the first part of this title I have spoken in another place, and shall not insist upon it further than to repeat, that Shushan-eduth, the lily of witness,  or of beauty, seem to have been the first words of some song which was commonly known at the time. It is added, to teach; and this, as some have thought, because the psalm was given to the Levites, that they might learn it. But others have very properly rejected this idea, as we cannot suppose that a title, which is equally applicable to all the psalms, would have been here used as a term of distinction. More probably it points at a particular instruction or doctrine, which would be taught by the following psalm. We may suppose that David, who had gained so many decisive victories, but had not the satisfaction, as yet, of seeing the kingdom finally settled under him, employs the word to denote that he had a special lesson to enforce, which was, the duty of all who had hitherto opposed him to put an end to factions, and, after such convincing evidences, acknowledge that he was their divinely-appointed king. Let experience, at least, as if he had said, prove that the sovereignty which I hold meets with the approbation of God, crowned, as it is, in the eyes of all, with so many tokens of his favor. The psalm is described as being a kind of triumphal song for victories obtained over the Syrians and other allied nations. As the Jews reckon Mesopotamia, and other countries, to be included in Syria, which they call Aram, they are forced subsequently to distinguish it into different parts, as here we find Syria Naharim put for Mesopotamia, which some of the Latins have named Interamnis, (or, between two rivers,) following the Greek etymology; for Mesopotamia in Greek means between two rivers, that is, between the Tigris and Euphrates.  Next, we have Syria Soba mentioned, which some have considered upon good grounds to be Sophene, because adjacent to the bank of the Euphrates; and David is said (2 Samuel 8:3) to have smitten Rehob, king of Soba, as he went to recover his border at the river. In the same passage, we read of a third Syria, that of Damascus, nearer to Judea, and almost touching upon it. Syria is, in other places of Scripture, represented as still more extensive, and has epithets attached to it according to the different territories which are meant to be pointed out. As David had war with the more adjacent part of Syria, and routed the army which had come out from it to the assistance of the Ammonites, it may be asked why he speaks only of the inhabitants of Mesopotamia and Soba. I think it probable that he specifies the more distant nations, as being the most formidable, and as affording a more illustrious proof of the Divine favor which accompanied his arms. For this reason, he passes over the more neighboring nations, and mentions those which were situated at a distance, the terror of which was known only by report, and whose overthrow was something unheard of, and almost incredible. In the inspired history, two-and-twenty thousand are said to have been slain,  (1 Chronicles 18:12,) in the title of this psalm only twelve thousand; but the apparent inconsistency is easily explained. It is Abishai whom the history represents as defeating the forces, which are here said to have been overthrown by Joab. We are to consider that the army was divided between the two brothers. Abishai being inferior in rank and authority, we need not wonder that the praise of the victory is ascribed to him who was the chief commander, although both had a share in gaining it; as in 1 Samuel 18:7, David is described as having the whole honor of the victory, because he was the individual under whose auspices it had been accomplished. It is probable that about half the number mentioned in the history fell during the main engagement, and that the rest having fled from the field, were put to the sword by Joab in their retreat. 
Sl 60:1 Ó Deus,
tu nos rejeitaste e nos dispersaste;
tens estado indignado;
Sl 60:2 Abalaste a terra,
repara-lhe as brechas,
pois ela ameaça ruir.
Sl 60:3 Fizeste o teu povo experimentar reveses
e nos deste a beber vinho que atordoa.
Sl 60:4 Deste um estandarte aos que te temem,
para fugirem de diante do arco.
Sl 60:5 Para que os teus amados sejam livres,
salva com a tua destra
Sl 60:6 Falou Deus na sua santidade:
e medirei o vale de Sucote.
Sl 60:7 Meu é Gileade,
meu é Manassés;
Efraim é a defesa de minha cabeça;
Judá é o meu cetro.
Sl 60:8 Moabe, porém, é a minha bacia de lavar;
sobre Edom atirarei a minha sandália;
sobre a Filístia jubilarei.
Sl 60:9 Quem me conduzirá à cidade fortificada?
Quem me guiará até Edom?
Sl 60:10 Não nos rejeitaste, ó Deus?
Tu não sais,
com os nossos exércitos!
Sl 60:11 Presta-nos auxílio na angústia,
pois vão é o socorro do homem.
Sl 60:12 Em Deus faremos proezas,
porque ele mesmo calca aos pés os nossos adversários.
Ele pede auxílio e socorro a Deus, o único que poderá auxiliar na angústia, calcar aos pés os nossos adversários e nos permitir fazer proezas, em seu nome. Eu entendo neste belo salmo que Deus tem compromisso com a minha pessoa enquanto a minha pessoa permanece fiel, do contrário, Deus não será conivente com qualquer ato tresloucado de minha parte.
Até o ímpio quando dá ouvidos à obediência e segue a verdade é beneficiado e mais agraciado. Apesar de tudo, não recebemos tudo o que merecemos por causa da longanimidade de Deus e de sua infinita misericórdia que nos estende o manto da sua graça nos concedendo novas oportunidades todos os dias. Davi sabia disso! E você?
p.s.: link da imagem original:
Contagem regressiva: Faltam 41 dias para 26/04/13 (Inicio: 31/07/10). (hoje: 18/03/2013) e 451 dias para a Copa, sem álcool nos estádios....
A Deus toda glória! p/ Daniel Deusdete – http://www.jamaisdesista.com.br